THE PERUVIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHILOSOPHY No. 9: POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

Month (?) of 1998

(Abstracts)

DEMOCRACY AND AUTHORITARISM

Dr. Juan ABUGATTÁS ABUGATTÁS Ph.D. in Philosophy, Professor, Universidad de Lima and San Marcos

Notion and appraisal of democracy has been different in one time to another. For Aristotle the worst type of government was democracy, for Thomas Aquina monarchy was the better one. Only in Modern times some conditiones appeared in order to accept possitively democracy under the social contract, the natural laws and for mainly practical reasons (Locke). Montesquieu proposed a division of power. Rousseau introduced the radical notion of direct democracy. De Tocqueville thought in a democratic tirany of mayorities because of the conflict between equality and freedom. Finally in 19th century the right to vote appears in USA but only some human beings are considered voting citizens.

CONCEPTUAL DIALECTICS NOCIONAL OF POLITICS

Dr. Antonio BELAÚNDE MOREYRA, Lawyer and former Ambassador, member of the Peruvian Society of Philosophy

Political sciences study policy, but what is policy? Against to the thesis that political sciences are the State theory is the one that says it is Power theory. Both of them are insatisfactory because not all in State life has a political feature and power has a wide and generic concept. A synthesis proposed to understand policy as a theory of the national community as global category that includes the public thing and the private one. Finally, the base of State is the national community.

DEMOCRATIC ETHICS

Dr. Paul KURTZ, Profesor emérito of Philosophy, State University of New York

Almost every political movement call itself champion of democracy because of its positive connotations, but in reality it has many enemies from left and right. We can speak in several senses of democracy but it is essential its ethical dimension in relation to equality and freedom. People should believe in a just and human democracy in order it works. Also an universal education, tolerance, civil disobedience, the rule of law, competence and participation. The democratic ideal is used as a comparative and descriptive model. In order to realize ethics in social reality democracy should work in political institutions and in a society open and without discrimination of all type.

MORAL FEATURES OF THE PRODUCTIVIST MODEL

Lic. Zenón DE PAZ, Profesor of Philosophy, Universidad de San Marcos

This text is about a short review of the concept of development attending to its presumptions and implies. Assuming that such a concept sustain all an ideology -a set of images and values justifying of a way of life-, this paper acknowledges its role in the consolidation and expansion of a productive model that, although it suposes a few beneficiaries and the exclusion of mayorities, it has gained to project a mirage generator of expectations that catch to peoples in bows of domination lying by world power nucleuses.

LAW AS BASIS OF ADAM SMITH’S ECONOMY

Mr. Federico SALAZAR BUSTAMANTE, Journalist and host of the Peruvian TV news program First Edition. He studied Philosophy in Universidad de San Marcos

For Hobbes men who should subordinate to civil power (colectivism) but for Smith civil power must not subject human potential. The economic delay is caused by natural impediment and civil government’s views. When the state justice is not based in natural justice it creates a contrary effect, monopolies and state regulation violate individuals’ rights. Prosperity rise of a combination of legislation with moral as a result of the civil society’s evolution. In short, law is the basis of political economy. For Smith nations that prosper are those respectful of both natural freedom and justice of individuals. Social systems should not rise from imagination (of projectists, now they would be call utopic social engineers) but experience. Jurisprudence must protect individuals rights to be free and develop their talents.

RESPONSES TO:

-Zenón De Paz ‘s review of: Octavio OBANDO MORÁN’s The Peruvian Philosophical Making (published with Ediciones Espigón)

-Gustavo Flores’ review of: David SOBREVILLA’s Peruvian Contemporary Philosophy

REVIEWS OF:

-ARETE. Journal of Philosophy of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP) Víctor MONTERO CAM, student of Philosophy, PUCP

-Gustavo FLORES QUELOPANA’s The Civilized Barbarism by Lic. Aníbal CAMPOS R., Professor of Philosophy, UNMSM

-Augusto RUIZ ZEBALLOS’ Looking for a Political Center (Winner of the Peruvian National Essay Contest 1997, Univ. Nacional Federico Villarreal) by Lic. Carlos FLORES SORIA, Professor of History, UNFV

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